Saturday, March 14, 2020

Impact of Globalisation and International Institutions on Organisations The WritePass Journal

Impact of Globalisation and International Institutions on Organisations Conclusion Impact of Globalisation and International Institutions on Organisations IntroductionUnderstand the wider implications and effects of global integration on organisation1. Globalization1.1.2 The Impact of Globalization on Business1.1.3 Market size1.1.4 Technological impact 1.1.5 Effects on Financial stability1.1.6 Trading demand:1.2 Influence of international institutions on organisations1.2.1 The role of National and International Institutions and effects  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1.2.2 IMF, World Bank and Trade1.2.3 Mounting IMF Debts for Countries in Crisis1.2.4 The role of Organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD)1.2.5 The role of G20 Reviewing globalization and economic Growth1.2.6 The rise of the BRICs and the future of globalization1.3 Role and responsibility of European Union membership on the workforce1.3.1 Policies and best practices of the European Union1 .3.2 Education, Training, Youth1.3.3 Protecting, preserving and improving the world environment1.3.4 Employment and Social Affairs1.3.5. Economic stability and growth globally   1.3.6 A European Economic Recovery Plan1.3.7 Solutions at financial market and macro-economic level1.3.8 Solutions at global level  Importance of responsible corporate governance in organisations2.1 The Effective Corporate Governance2.1.1 Corporate governance2.1.2 Principles of the effective corporate governance2.1.3 The Effective Corporate Governance of BBC2.2 Regularity requirements the shapes the corporate governance2.2.1 The Operating angles of the (BBC) Globally2.2.2 Responsibilities of the effective board members2.2.3 The responsibilities of the Nominations, Audit, Committees’ (BBC)2.2.4 The responsibilities of the (external) Worldwide Executive Committee2.2.5 Accountability and Internal Control2.3 The impact of regularity requirements on corporate stakeholders’ interests in an organi sation 2.3.1 Risk management2.3.2 Controls monitoring2.3.3 Protection of Ethic’s data2.3.4 Relationship with Suppliers, Rights Holders and Producers stakeholder3.1 The Economics of adapting the policy of environmental awareness and ethical organisations ethical responsibilities of British Airways3.1.1 Introduction3.1.2 What Is Business Environment?3.2 Environmental issues of British Airways and impact on economy and necessary actions3.2.1. Climate change policy:3.2.2 Carbon emission trade against Green taxes:3.2.3 Waste and its impact on environment and actions:3.2.4 Noise, its impact and actions:3.3 Measure that exist to improve workplace and health safety practice3.3.1 European environmental legislation and developing economic conditions3.3.2 Improvement in health and safety, at work place4.1 Social, Cultural, Ethical and Moral issues at work place4.2 Diversity of the British Airways4.3.1 Leadership development4.3.2 Relationship with stakeholders4.3.3 Customers’ opin ions, recommendations and organization actionsConclusionReferences/BibliographyRelated Introduction Understand the wider implications and effects of global integration on organisation The Business advisory service is providing its best services to the local businesses. It is also fully supporting the local businesses for finding out the best solution where ever it is required. The challenging task, which is to identify the impact of globalization, its effects on national economy and influence of the national and international institutions, further more how, the European Union is battling and providing the best plat form to the European community to build the economy and best practices in European institutions. These all above mentioned important features and factors are about to be discussed, in appropriate sequence forms. 1. Globalization Globalization has become a smart concept in the social sciences, a core statement the prescription of specialists in management, and catch phrase for journalists and politician of every stripe. It is widely asserted that to live in the era in which the great part of social life is determined by global processes, in which national culture, national economics and national borders are dissolving. Central to this perception is the concept of a rapid and recent process of economic globalization (Paul, h and Grahame, T. 1996, p. 1).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Figure: 1 [Source]:   (Impact of globalization, 2010) 1.1.2 The Impact of Globalization on Business According to (Myatt, 2006) Chief Strategy Officer, N2grwoth, who had the opportunity to transact business in various parts of Asia, the Middle East, Canada, Central and Latin America, Russia and former Eastern Bloc countries, India, and the European Community. Conducting business on a global basis has always been of great personal interest.   However, the days of doing business abroad are no longer a luxury. The ability to conduct business internationally is an absolute necessity if to remain competitive in today’s marketplace. Who has described in comprehensive manners in following series, (Myatt, 2006). 1.1.3 Market size In present era marketplace/size, conducting business worldwide is both defensive and offensive play.   In examining the upside of going global, consider the complete size of national and international markets and could likely be found that the most of the potential customers live across the world, So even if double, triple, revenue of the business (Myatt, 2006). Now assume the downside of not going global, if company is not monitoring those customers competition will be, they will not only take a first mover’s benefits of holding customer loyalty, brand recognition, but they will also tow-chain key partners and distribution agreements. As consumers continue to become more demanding and the world economy continues to flatten, there will soon be an expectation that you be able to serve multiple markets in a perfect and smooth fashion. Being a slow operation in the present era could eventually bring lost business (Myatt, 2006). Example: Indeed globalization is being experienced at present arguably became most recognizable with the end of the cold war, and have   continued their fast move with the development of third world countries and other emerging markets, establishment of free trade agreements like China andNorth American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (Myatt, 2006). 1.1.4 Technological impact The advance development of   Internet and other   source of communications, the growing multi-national indentation of business, the emergence of the European Community, the maintaining impact of the Euro on global currency markets, as well as the increased liquidity of more frequently and efficient capital markets (Myatt, 2006). â€Å"The above referenced worldwide macroeconomic maturation, more commonly referred to today as â€Å"Globalization,† has served to stabilize business and financial markets in such a dramatic fashion that many industry pundits have yet to reach an understanding of the depth and breadth of the impact, it has had on lowering political, financial, and economic volatility† (Myatt, 2006). 1.1.5 Effects on Financial stability If taking in to account the stabilizing factor, globalization has had on the world economy. Presently recession had great effects on trade downfall, oil pricing,  down condition of markets, housing crisis, and overall cost of living  could be challenging more than it is. Conventional economic theory would suggest that with many of the negative economic metrics in play today, interest rate environment could more closely resemble that of 1980 In fact, when the United States went through the Great Depression it was largely a result of having an isolated economy.   This would show foreign investment from the G7, and countries like China, Japan, and Dubai  would see it as an opportunity to affordably, acquire interests in United States companies (Myatt, 2006). Example: â€Å"Emerging, markets in Eastern Europe, India, Latin America, China and the rest of Asia present scenarios for higher growth, even on a risk-adjusted basis. On an aggregate basis, the statistics are impressive. For example, currently 80 percent of the world’s population accounts for 20 percent of world GDP. By 2015, 50 percent of world GDP will be accounted for by emerging markets† (Myatt, 2006). 1.1.6 Trading demand: The economic progress, as well as the existing global companies that bring employment oriented around intelligent and knowledgeable capital, is creating demand for modern, western style commercial real estate infrastructure, Core assets such as office, industry, retail, multi-family, etc (Myatt, 2006). 1.2 Influence of international institutions on organisations 1.2.1 The role of National and International Institutions and effects  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Almost every major national or international commercial business relies on subsidiaries or strategic alliances to obtain a comparable degree of influence and flexibility. As one measure of their scale, almost a third of total international trade now occurs exclusively within these multinational businesses. With the arrival of such global firms, international conflict has, to some extent, moved from nations to these firms, with the battle no longer among nations over territory but rather among firms over their share of world markets (Intriligator,2006,p. 25). Figure: 2   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   [Source]:   (The European Union, 2008) 1.2.2 IMF, World Bank and Trade The failure of the IMF, World Bank and WTO to represent and further the interests of the developing world, through their one-size-fits-all approach, has led to the collapse of trade negations, widespread criticism of their effectiveness, and bitter international protest. Many countries are rejecting the neoliberal ideologies of the ‘unholy trinity’ with intensifying calls for their reform or decommissioning (Share the world resources, 2011). 1.2.3 Mounting IMF Debts for Countries in Crisis The global economic crisis in 2009, which came on the heels of a food and fuel crises in 2008, forced many low-income countries to take on new debt through no fault of their own. The growing climate crises, which were once again originated in the global North, also disproportionately affects the world’s poorest countries, and has resulted in new debt as countries borrow to prepare for and recover from climate-related disasters (Gurrà ­a,2006). In the wake of the global economic crisis, the G20 acknowledged the impact of these crises on poor countries and directed the international financial institutions to create better mechanisms to assist poor countries cope with such exogenous shocks. The World Bank’s International 1.2.4 The role of Organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD) The role of the OECD is to play in managing globalization – understanding it, explaining it, analyzing its effects, and making policy recommendations to maximize its benefits and to tackle its challenges. Another key aspect of the OECD today is the globalization of own activities, as it works with 70 non-member economies in particular the so-called BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (Gurrà ­a,2006). Figure: 3 [Source]: (OECD, 2011) The last aspect role is to explain globalization. As to increase public concern about the process, and experience the negative side of globalization. One of the great challenges for the policy agenda for reaping the full benefits of globalization is the so-called political economy of reform.   How can governments implement the necessary reforms?   In many countries, well-designed reforms have failed to be implemented or sustained due to the near-term political costs that they entail, and the fact that opponents are vocal and well-organised while benefits tend to be more diffuse and delayed (Gurrà ­a,2006) 1.2.5 The role of G20 Reviewing globalization and economic Growth â€Å"A New Agenda for the G20 (September 23, 2009) One definition of crisis is â€Å"turning point,† and that is where we find the global economy in September 2009 as G20 leaders assemble in Pittsburgh†. This seems to be that G20 would play outstanding role to have grip on global recession. It has delivered a four-part agenda to overcome on to the recession.   It is focusing on the following agenda, which might be helpful to give new economic platform, like business, academic world and the policy community- offer their visions of how the G20 nations can put efforts together work together to renew globalization and economic growth in critical situation. Sources of growth and the role of innovation, the role of financial regulation, trade in restoring growth and Educating, a workforce for the existing century’s economy, Social and political, challenges of renewing globalization† (Atlantic Council, 2011). The connections among these big issues are complicated. However, G20 is continuously struggling with its holistic approach. Moreover, global has great expectations produce positive results in economic progress (Atlantic Council, 2011). 1.2.6 The rise of the BRICs and the future of globalization This is very important to high light the importance of four major countries, in economic growth of the globalization that are Brazil, Russia, India and China. Although there is lot of distance among these countries but due technological era, there is hardly gap among them. These countries are rich from human skills and natural and technological resources. China and India are marching very smartly with self-determination, self-confidence and having vision to be the first in the world matter of concerned, as china is second and India is fourth or fifth largest countries in the world economies. Likewise, if Brazil and Russia honor with few other emerging economies such as South Africa, and large share of the world’s population and a growing share of the world’s economic activity (Dehejia, 2010). Western countries are considering that BRICs may cause of declination of west but this is not the case, reason being the increased international integration through business and fi nance, would be very fruitful by working mutually (Dehejia, 2010). 1.3 Role and responsibility of European Union membership on the workforce 1.3.1 Policies and best practices of the European Union The  European  Union is a collaborative effort between 27  European  countries to form a mutually beneficial economic and policy community. Since 1993, the EU has worked to increase economies and spread human rights  advances worldwide. The goals of the  European Union  include uniting Europe toward common goals and providing aid to developing nations,  (conjecture corporation2003 – 2011). The European Union member countries have authorized some of authorities in some policy area, fisheries, culture, which can be seen in the following shape for the better improvement and change  Ã‚   (Europa, 2011). 1.3.2 Education, Training, Youth Top-quality education and training are vital if Europe is to develop as a knowledge society and compete effectively in the globalizing world economy. Education policy as such is decided by each EU country, but together they set common goals and share best practices. In addition, the EU funds numerous programs allowing its citizens to make the most of their personal development and the EU’s economic potential by studying, training or doing voluntary work in other countries (Europe, 2011). 1.3.3 Protecting, preserving and improving the world environment â€Å"The European Union is considered to be the unique environment standards in the world, developed over the long time to address a wide range of issues. The priorities are fighting against the climate change, preserving biodiversity, reducing health problems from pollution and using natural resources more responsibly. While aimed at protecting the environment, these goals can contribute to economic growth by fostering innovation and enterprise† (Europa, 2011). 1.3.4 Employment and Social Affairs â€Å"In the era of this new economy are based on lot of knowledge rather than raw materials or physical labor. To do well in the competition from new rising economies, Europe must create the jobs needed by a dynamic, knowledge-based society. This requires investments in education and in science, as well as in employment policies geared to keep up with the pace of change and see the EU through the global economic crisis. EU countries work closely together to meet these challenges, sharing objectives and policies which are mutually supportive† (Europa, 2011). 1.3.5. Economic stability and growth globally   â€Å"Within a single market and major trading bloc like the EU, it makes good sense to coordinate national economic policies. This enables the EU to act rapidly and coherently when faced with economic challenges such as the current economic and financial crises. Sixteen countries have pushed coordination even further by adopting the euro as their currency† (Europa, 2011). 1.3.6 A European Economic Recovery Plan Since in the mid of 2008, the occurrence of recession, European Union has been engaged itself with an economic recovery plan aimed at proposing both European and global solutions. On one side, the plan proposes short period action at the level of businesses, individual and banks. On the other side, it aims, in the longer period, to develop a clean economy with low carbon dioxide emission that is capable of boosting up the future growth (Europa, 2011). The European Economic Recovery Plan is a response to the global economic crisis that affected the actual economy in 2008. It sets out the large lines of a coordinated European approach, which involves: Quickly, inspiring, demand; Supporting the most susceptible people, affected by the economic downfall; Europe to take star in t competitive leg; Taking advantage of this period of disruption, in order to make faster the establishment of a cleaner economy, with more worries, for the environment (Europa, 2011). The European Commission proposes that Member States and the European Union agree on an immediate budgetary impetus amounting to EUR 200 -13824. The plan is intend to operate at both European and global platform (Europa, 2011). 1.3.7 Solutions at financial market and macro-economic level The instability in the financial markets triggers the crisis in the real economy. It is important that the banks should re-focus on their primary activities of providing liquidity and supporting investment in the real economy. The European investment Bank will increase its yearly interventions guidelines in the European Union by some EUR 15 billion in the form of loans, impartial, guarantees and risk-management method financing, as well as investment from private sources (Europa, 2011). Expenditures policy will have a role to play in steadfast economies and stable demand. This recovery will take place within the framework of the Stability and Growth Pact and the priorities of the Lisbon Strategy (Europa, 2011). 1.3.8 Solutions at global level The Plan aims to reinforce collaboration between the European Union and its internationalpartners in economic and climate matters. The European Union must also maintain its  commitments to developing countries  in the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Overseas Development Assistance (ODA), in particular by developing new instruments to help those countries deal with the direct consequences of the crisis whilst maintaining sustainable development (Europa, 2011).   Importance of responsible corporate governance in organisations 2.1 The Effective Corporate Governance The assigned task being the compliance manger at British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), there are certain responsibilities that are to be full-filled with their all-respective dimensions. The efforts have been made to make sure the Board of corporate governance is performing effectively and bringing the BBC the best organisation in global. The efforts again been put forward to look deeply into the area of improvement and make sure the board is fully aware of their roles and responsibilities. The focus would be on purpose, board responsibility, transparency, objectives, integrity, ethical behavior, organizational culture, stakeholders’ interest, and controls of the effective governance and best practices. These all above-mentioned factors are likely to discuss and can be the best turning point for the bitterness of British Broadcastings Corporation. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) counted, to be the largest organization on the global platform. The organization is th e public service broadcasters, which provide the worldwide broadcast service on radio and satellite (BBC, 2011). 2.1.1 Corporate governance Corporate governance is the easement, which refers at large level to the rules, policies, procedures, system and laws by which, businesses are run effectively and controlled. The expression can refer to micro factors defined by the officers concern or compliance manager, stockholders of the corporation, as well as to macro forces such as consumer groups, clients, and government regulations like local council, pressure groups etc. In year recent, corporate governance has increased its attention because of high-profile outrage, involving abuse of corporate power and, in some cases, alleged illegal activity by corporate officer (Chartered Institute of Internal Auditors, 2011). Source: (rsm.aajassociates.com.2011) 2.1.2 Principles of the effective corporate governance However, to observe the effective corporate governance is essential to practice the certain principles. Develop the capacity and usefulness of the governing body. Agreed and encourage value, hold talks with stakeholders. Be fair and impartial defending the people’s rights. Conduct yourself as ethical citizen.   Set strategic purpose and best results. Spot out and manage threat. Make transform and clear decisions. Observe performance. Keep every-thing open so that accountability is effective. Act in accordance with law. Describe roles and responsibilities (Chartered Institute of Internal Auditors, 2011) Example: effective corporate governance The 1992 Cadbury Report include a policy of Best to do for companies. It is build for the Principles of accountability, goodness  and clearness. These principles, along with the concept of impartiality, became the yardstick for good corporate governance. It is corporate by public sector. From these basics, other organizations have developed their own ideas of what superior corporate governance looks like (Chartered Institute of Internal Auditors, 2011). Example: The effective, practices of corporate governance. Development organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) has earned the worldwide credit as an international yardstick for good corporate governance (Donald, 2004, P.17) 2.1.3 The Effective Corporate Governance of BBC Corporate Governance within BBC, is being run by desire to support and guard the values,   At the spirit of the BBC brand,  both in the United kingdom and globally, and details of BBC values are set out in the How it does business  segment. Mutually with the facts that are a company entirely owned by a public body, this means that BBC has a unique and comprehensive governance structure. However, In September 2009, the BBC Trust published the results of the Commercial Review of BBC’s global activities.   Among the conclusions was a requirement that BBC glob ally’s governance structure should be review to provide greater transparency and compliance with the collective rules. Besides, BBC also exercising the principles contained within the Royal Charter of July 2006, which is the constitutional basis for the BBC (BBC Annual reviews, 2009). This section looks at both corporate and commercial governance structures and implementation 2.2 Regularity requirements the shapes the corporate governance 2.2.1 The Operating angles of the (BBC) Globally However, the Chairman leads the Board, setting its plan and ensuring that each Director is able to deliver effective decision-making. The Chairman is not involved in the routine business of the BBC Worldwide Group of companies (the Group). The Chief Executive holds day-to-day management responsibility for the Groups businesses, forming and implementing Group tactic, as settled by the Board. This forming of responsibilities between the Chairman and Chief Executive has been set out in writing and agreed by the Board. 2.2.2 Responsibilities of the effective board members The responsibilities of BBC’s Board embarked in the Matters kept back for the Board and briefly encompass. Surroundings the strategic courses of actions of the business growth map. To forming up the annual business plan, Supervising the commercial performance and business motions. Estimating the performance through a range of financial tools like, the annual budget, monthly management an account, quarterly re-forecasts and the growth plan. Suggest the sharing policy to the shareholder. Keep up internal controls and risk-management processes .developing and maintaining a supportive relationship with the shareholder (Chartered Institute of Internal Auditors, 2011). 2.2.3 The responsibilities of the Nominations, Audit, Committees’ (BBC) These are embark in continuously reviewing the structure, size and risk management, required of the Board and making recommendations to the Board on any suitable changes, Planning the sequence of Directors and other senior executives. Spot out and nominating, for the Boards approval, applicant to fill board vacancies.The Audit Committee is responsible set out in its terms of reference and includes; observing the reliability of the financial statements including serious accounting course of action and performance. Reviewing the effectiveness of system in place for identifying and mitigating emerging risks facing the business assessing the effectiveness of systems for internal control and reporting (BBC, 2010). 2.2.4 The responsibilities of the (external) Worldwide Executive Committee These areset out in its terms of reference and include; managing operational matters delegated to it by the Board, within clearly defined approval limits. Aging the operations of the company. Devising and implementing strategy agreed by the Board. Identification, and management of risk, and providing assurance to the Board (BBC annual review, 2010). 2.2.5 Accountability and Internal Control The BBC Worldwide Board has overall responsibility for maintaining an adequate system of internal control and for reviewing its effectiveness. Such a system is designed to manage, rather than eliminate, the risk of failure to achieve business objectives and can provide only reasonable, but not absolute, assurance against material misstatement or loss is currently being rolled out to ensure that all trading businesses comply with local laws and regulations (BBC, 2010). 2.3 The impact of regularity requirements on corporate stakeholders’ interests in an organisation 2.3.1 Risk management The Board has responsibility for the identification and management of risks facing the business. An assessment of the exposure to risk, and the extent to which these risks are controlled, including implementation of actions to mitigate risk is updated and presented to the Audit Committee every three months. Each operating unit and major region monitors risks on an ongoing basis, providing their assessments to the Risk Management and Internal Control Committee (RMIC) quarterly   (reporting (BBC, 2010). 2.3.2 Controls monitoring The BBCs Business Assurance department provides an internal audit function in respect of BBC Worldwide on behalf of the BBC. The audit plan is based on a continuing assessment of key risks and monitoring compliance of key systems and processes and is approved by the Audit Committee. The results of testing reported at each meeting of the Audit Committee, which scrutinizes the operation of controls throughout the year. BBC Business Assurances authority and independence ensured by its joint independent reporting relationship to the BBCs Executive Audit Committee and to the BBCs Director-General. The scope of BBC Business Assurance includes the examination and evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the systems of internal control and the quality of performance in carrying out assigned responsibilities. BBC Worldwide also calls on BBC Business Assurance and external accounting firms for advice on internal controls and programmed governance as needed (BBC, 2010). 2.3.3 Protection of Ethic’s data BBC Worldwide is putting their efforts, respect the confidentiality of its customers, listeners, workers and contributors. As part of the BBCs data-protection compliance structure, BBC Worldwide is committed to holding personal data in accordance with the provisions of the Data Protection Act 1998. Where BBC Worldwide operates in jurisdictions outside the UK, it may also be subject to the additional requirements of local laws needed (BBC, 2010). 2.3.4 Relationship with Suppliers, Rights Holders and Producers stakeholder The BBC Worldwide team is trying its best to ensure that goods and services are gained in a fair way with a clear emphasis on risk management, quality, service, cost and improvement. In addition, BBC takes with critical and strategic suppliers to drive a constant improvement program that ensures security of supply whilst maintaining Total Cost of Ownership Approach in sourcing decisions (BBC, 2010). 3.1 The Economics of adapting the policy of environmental awareness and ethical organisations ethical responsibilities of British Airways 3.1.1 Introduction Being a senior manager of British Airway, is the sole responsibility for preparing the best article, in which the efforts, are put together to discuss the important issues related to the organization. In this article, the major issues to be brought, into consideration like, climatic change, biodiversity, carbon emission, environmental degradation, overpopulation, pollution, corporate responsibilities, and organization’s policies according to legal legislation. Moreover, The European Union and United Kingdom environmental legislations, the social, cultural, ethical and moral issues will also remain under discussion. 3.1.2 What Is Business Environment? It is the combination of two words business and environment. The word business means the human being works or makes actions to earn, produce, and buy or sale the good. On other, hand the word environment means surroundings. Therefore, this would not be wrong to say that economical, legal, social, and institutional, which beyond the control in nature and have impacts and effects on the functioning of the business organization. There are two types of environment microenvironment and macro environment. Micro deals with internal environment of the organization, like manpower, material, capital, and management etc. whilst macro environment acts as external, which is not under control of the organization, Such as political, sociological, demographical and Government rule and regulations (The Gemini Geek, 2011). Moreover, marketplace support would involve the customers and suppliers in same goal, to encourage and dedication to corporate responsibility and will help British airways to build a more sustainable big business (European Union, 2011). [Source]: (Computer Sciences Corporation, 2011) The British Airways established in august 25th 1919, with name of Aircraft transport and travel limited. British Airways  is the UKs largest leading international airline, providing flight services, about 550, different destinations in the world at their best. The first daily international air service was launched between London and Paris (British airways, 2011). 3.2 Environmental issues of British Airways and impact on economy and necessary actions The British Airways is trying to shape the best practices, which could be very useful to build the economic conditions of the organization as follow; 3.2.1. Climate change policy: The organization is putting their efforts, by participating in mission of reduction of carbon dioxide emission globally. To cut the emission company has to adopt one of the options, Example: organization has to buy the low cost emission technology. Alternatively, to buy the allowance from other companies of their non-exceeded, allowance. Above mentioned both be taken as completely (British Airways, 2011). 3.2.2 Carbon emission trade against Green taxes: The British Airways is putting extra taxes on their customer to utilize the investment for reducing the emission, with name of Green taxes. However, research has highlighted that Green taxes had minor effects on reducing the carbon emission. Therefore, Green taxes have not been so successful. However, it is emphasize, that organizations should adopt the low emission technology practice (British airways, 2011). However,   there is need to take positive steps like, global agreement, International air transport association, UK sustainable Aviation groups, which are working on this mission. Furthermore, European Union carbon-trading scheme, have been taken into aviation industry by 2011 (British airways, 2011). 3.2.3 Waste and its impact on environment and actions: To counter the waste problems and its worst effects, like diseases, landfill, etc. The organization is trying to practice and find out the ways like; all workers will make use of internet and computers. The airplanes arriving on airport, the newspapers are recycled. There are several other recycle centers (British Airways, 2011). 3.2.4 Noise, its impact and actions: The noise had always been worst effects on environment. The population, which is living near the airports, has great concern about the noise. The British Airways is trying their best to complete the goal by reducing the noise track by 15% by 2015. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) will be managing this approach. However, tow ways are to be experienced to reduce the noise. For take-off to use the single engine taxi, airspace management, airport management, and design the use of aircraft secondary, power units Same as for landing, the efforts are continue like   gentle landing approach with constant speed (British Airways, 2011). This is also to put into consideration that Nighttime’s movements avoided. It is trying to maintain the procedure to avoid take-off at night. However, it should focus while adopting the new scientific methods to deal with problem. 3.3 Measure that exist to improve workplace and health safety practice 3.3.1 European environmental legislation and developing economic conditions The European Union is trying to use more alternates instead of many existing resources, for examples recycling. However, prices needed to be changed, to attract and reflect the environmental cost. It has to provide, the best incentives to the consumers and to use the resources more effectively, will make better economic conditions. Which will create more work opportunities, the provision of green technologies and services, in renewable energy provision, eco-industries and recycling, for example? Resource efficiency will profit other policies as well wiser use of resources reduces greenhouse gas emissions and many other environmental and health problems (European Union, 2011). 3.3.2 Improvement in health and safety, at work place The organization is committed to provide the best health and safety services, and is highly engaged to provide support at work place and remain in touch with liaison Officers and station commander. The Health and Safety section enthusiastically monitor all actions, hazards, assessments and tasks (Annual report, p44). The Operational Intelligence section continues to provide very useful support to frontline Firefighters by capturing risk information that may be risky to the safe conclusion of operational happenings. Theorganization also has dedicated its services to the Community Safety. The Community Safety Directorate has responsibility, For Youth commitment, Demand Reduction Innovations and Partnerships Service Delivery However, the efforts together for fire safety in the Built Environment, This process involves the broadcasting of information in relation to new buildings and any other building to Which material changes have been made?. Organization is also running the Health and Safety related training courses and continues to satisfy its legal requirements to provide the best health and safety services (British Airways, 2010. P4). 4.1 Social, Cultural, Ethical and Moral issues at work place Although Organization is committed to provide the job opportunities, to any ethnical group like, gay, lesbian and transgender workers. There is another issue that can be cater is conflict and harassment resolution. There are numbers of advisors and peacekeepers working across British Airways to create a culture, where decorum and self-esteem are hallmarks of relationships at work place, and where aggravation or discrimination are not permitted to be tolerated (British Airways, 2010. P4). 4.2 Diversity of the British Airways However, Diversity team has launched Inclusion Strategy, which has two plain goals, first that everyone knows why diversity has importance in the organization; second, to observe that diversity is incorporated into every part of the organization. The main point of impact is to rotate the employees in job rotation to gain more experience and beat the challenges. The discussions, could be more useful that how, harassment issue can be resolved. How awareness, is be raised? Furthermore, it is also is to be considered why and how bullying takes place. There is only one way that mediation can resolve these issues. The consultation of disabled group of employees has identified, disability issues, which help while launching new product and services. The main issue of the disabled employees is traveling; the new disability strategy has been introduced for the next four years which is called Building Ability towards 2012 (British airway, 2011). 4.3.1 Leadership development Leadership is a noteworthy main concern. There is a day plan for all managers, called Leading the Business, which focuses on the forth coming challenges of modify, engaging employees and achieving and delivering results to support business strategy. The website been developed for training, equipment to support managers with all dimensions of their roles (British airway, 2011). 4.3.2 Relationship with stakeholders The British Airways is more concern about to bring in to the knowledge environmental issues with its associates and suppliers, and backing them up to practice alike policies. While considering and negotiating on environmental agenda with customers, employees, and outer stakeholders. The important features of environmental progress clearly endorsed. The Group promotes the submissions of good environmental practice within the organization and its manufacturer, and monitors acquiescence with this policy (British Airways, 2010). 4.3.3 Customers’ opinions, recommendations and organization actions The customers’ opinions and views observed strictly through ‘Think customer survey. This is self-governing market research involving large numbers of customers on monthly basis. The organization also pins down the customer views on organization presentation with rival, as well as universal airlines. The customers are the backbone of any business organization (British airways, 2011). However, the target, which was set out in 2009/10, not achieved. Because of the slightly decrease in satisfying the customer for change catering services. The need is to make strong bridge, between British airways and mighty customers. This will be more fruitful for both of them. It will bring more business to the organization and great satisfaction to the customers (British airways, 2011). Conclusion This has come into conclusion that   in this highly demanding competitions era globalosation has great impact on the economy, the role of national and international organisation remains under criticism and argumentive. However, European Union have launched some of the policies and boosting the economy of Europe in so many sectors. The corporate governance of the BBC is trying to achieve its objectives, by implementing the effective policies and principles. The British Airways environmental and ethical responsibilities have met the international standard of the same organizations. Even then, lot of improvement is required in the areas of improvement, like working on emission, waste, biodiversity, ethical issues, and stakeholders’ interest/satisfaction in the overall organization’s business. References/Bibliography Annual report, (2010), Health and safety qualification. 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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Analysis Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Analysis - Coursework Example It may not generally be not difficult to confirm optional information in examination, however every exertion must be made keeping in mind the end goal to demonstrate the validity of the sources being utilized as a part of any exploration. On the off chance that solid and faultless, optional information give chances to replication. The accessibility of information gathered at times empowers researchers to utilize longitudinal outlines. Optional investigation may enhance the legitimacy of estimation by stretching the extent of the autonomous variables utilized when operationalzing real ideas. By utilizing secondary information, we can build the specimen size, its representativeness, and the quantity of perceptions elements that help more incorporating generalizations. Secondary information could be utilized for triangulation, accordingly expanding the legitimacy of the discoveries acquired from essential information. The most genuine issue in utilizing secondary information is that the information regularly just deduces the sorts of information that the specialist might want to utilize for testing theories. A second issue is access. A third issue may develop if the researcher has deficient data about how the information was gathered. Slips in scope imply that an individual or a gathering is either not numbered at all or is checked twice. Copy tallies are less genuine than undercounts. Blunders in substance happen at whatever point data is erroneously reported or classified. The Internet is a "web" of machines joined together by method for phone lines. A "site" is the electronic location of one of these machines. A server is a program in your PC that directs the site electronically, empowering you to enter the framework. The Internet is an open framework and is accessible to all, free of charge. Disintegration measures are the signs left after utilization of an item; for instance, the wear on library books is a

Monday, February 10, 2020

Cloud Atlas movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Cloud Atlas - Movie Review Example The second story starts showing the concerns for a young bi-sexual English man known by the name of Robert Frobisher. He ran from one place to another hiding from the debts he had gathered, a bad habit of gambling right after his disinheritance by his fathers will back in 1931. This English man went to Belgium with a plan so that he could crawl his way into a famous music composer's menage, with the help of his offerings and his dexterous musical skills he managed to put a roof above his head and earns some money for his pocket. Vyvyan Ayrs was a syphilitic and egotistical old man who was still belligerent to write music, and hired Frobisher, unknown to the facts of the English man’s secret life. Frobisher detailed his experience in the form of letters which he mailed them regularly to his best friend the back in England, Mr. Rufus Six Smith. As time passed by, everything went better than Frobisher had anticipated for. He became an essential asset for the musician’s mus ical conformations, Frobisher illegally slept with the old man's wife, stole and altered documents from the old musician’s estate, so that he could sell them for the needed cash urge he had in his past life. In one of these items, Frobisher found, was a copy of Adam ‘The advocate's journal’. Frobisher started to create his own music, a genius who began to arise and the bi-sexual began to write his first symphony, the Cloud Atlas Sextet. The movie then fast forwards to the nineteenth century, 1970 California where a journalist Luisa Rey was found investigating possible dangerous insinuations of a new-fangled nuclear plant being constructed. She meets Rufus Six smith, who was an elderly physicist, and the one whose reports would expose the real truth behind the... Movie Review – Cloud Atlas talks about six different stories that rally back and forth through time. The first story starts with the scene of the mid eighteenth century from the South Pacific region when an American lawyer named Adam Ewing take a trip by ship from the island of Chatham Isle and travel back to San Francisco. The second story begins displaying young bi-sexual English man named Robert Frobisher. He ran from one place to another hiding from the debts he had gathered, a bad habit of gambling right after his disinheritance by his fathers will back in 1931. The movie then fast forwards to the nineteenth century, 1970 California where a correspondent Luisa Rey was found investigating possible dangerous insinuations of a new-fangled nuclear plant being constructed. In the fourth epilogue we met Mr. Timothy Cavendish present-day here in England, where a small flourishing publishing business suddenly accomplishes huge triumph when one of the movies broadcasted became a h uge success. The movie then takes the audiences towards the 22nd century where most of the earth had been diseased and the remaining citizens had overcrowded into large cities run by conglomerates. Finally we come across the final story which is set in an un-sociable future of the iron-age in Hawaii. These six stories in the movie Cloud Atlas explored most comparable themes, but each story is presented in a different manner which immensely differentiates its viewpoints. The prettiness of these stories is that they are one way or another inter-twined within each other.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Police officer Essay Example for Free

Police officer Essay Inspector Goole has an air of mystery around him from the start. Mr. Birling is on the bench and knows all the police officers but has never seen Inspector Goole. The Inspector tells him that he is new Only recently transferred. This makes us wonder, is it a coincidence that he has just started working in Brumley at the same time as this investigation is going on? Or maybe he knew Eva Smith personally and wanted to find out more about what drove her to suicide. We dont really know who he is and there is no evidence that he is a real Inspector so the audience are confused whether to believe him or not. We do not know enough about his character to trust him. He also has a very mysterious nature for example the way he talks to people. He chooses his words carefully and speaks weightily. He does this so that he makes sure that he is saying what he wants to say and means it. Everything he says has a rather matter of fact tome to it making the other characters think that he is always right and knows what he is talking about. Also he has a disconcerting habit of looking at the person that he is talking to. This makes them uneasy. It is like the Inspector is searching them internally and can see what they are thinking. The name of the Inspector Inspector Goole adds to the dramatic tension of the play. The name Goole is a homophone to the word ghoul which is often related to a ghost. A ghost is a disembodied spirit of a dead person i.e. it is not really there. Ghosts and ghouls are thought to be fictional to scare children. Therefore is the Inspector real or not? Is Goole his real name or is he just using the name to scare the Birlings? These questions remain unanswered throughout the play. Inspector Goole has a very awkward yet methodical way of questioning each member of the family. He concentrates on one person at a time and does not let them go until he is satisfied with the information that he has gained. When he is questioning one person he does not like to disturbed. He has a photograph in his pocket which he says is of Eva Smith and he says he found it in her lodgings. He only shows it to one person at a time and makes sure that no one else can see it. When he shows Mr. Birling the photograph Gerald and Eric are eager to see it as well but he blocks their view. When they ask him why they cant see the photograph he replies Its the way I like to go to work. One person and one line of enquiry at a time. Otherwise there is a muddle. This shows the methodical side to his questioning. Throughout his enquiries, the Inspector has remained in control. At times he has massively taken charge. In social status, the Inspector is lower than the Birlings although throughout most of the play the Birlings are inferior to the Inspector as they do not know all the information like he does. What we do not know is how much the inspector already knows before arriving at the house. Whenever he asks a question, he already seems to know the otherwise he would not be questioning them. The information he has gathered before coming to the house is by reading the diary that Eva Smith left. Maybe some pages of the diary were missing, hence the lack of information in the Inspector. There is not really any evidence that what the inspector says is true apart from everyone admitting to what they did to Eva Smith. He doesnt even show the Birlings so called diary. Therefore we arent sure if there even was a diary or if he made it all up. We are force to believe that he is telling the truth because how else would he have got that information? The audience answer to it Anyhow I already knew. He obviously has bits of the puzzle missing do not learn a great about Inspector Goole in the play. All they learn about is his character and personality; he is imposing and intimidating. We do not know any background information on him e.g. where he is from. All this does not matter because even though he is the main character the play is not about him it is about Eva Smith. The audience probably do feel a bit curious about the mysterious Inspector but their curiosity soon subsides as they try to keep up with the fast pace of the play. Before the Inspector goes he says One Eva Smith has gone but there are millions and millions of Eva Smiths left with us. From this, the family learn that they might have led someone to suicide but there are plenty more vulnerable people like Eva Smith left in the world that needs their help.  John Priestley was born on September 13th 1894. He grew up into a family who enjoyed debates. At a very young age he was caught up in debates with his friends. They all discussed politics from a socialist point of view. He expresses these ideas and beliefs in the play. In the play his socialist ideas are expressed through the characters and by exploiting some techniques and devices. Now I am going to write about the social and political climate of the day. Priestley wrote this play An Inspector Calls in 1944, but the play was set in 1912. Priestley took into account the political and social climate of not just 1944 but also when the play was set in 1912. Because of the time in between the two periods Priestley could use historical events and facts for his own use in the play. An example of this is when Birling says, Im talking as a hard headed, practical man of business. And I say there isnt a chance of war. And in the Inspectors final speech when he talks about everyone being responsible for each others actions and the world is a whole and people shouldnt be divided up into classes and social groups. I tell you that the time will come when, if men will not learn that lesson, then they will be taught in fire and blood and anguish. In both these quotes Priestley touches on the subject of war. This would have attracted the audience to what Birling was saying and they would have started to dislike him and his ideas, since the Second World War would have just finished the audience would have been upset about their lost ones and would have been interested in peoples opinions and views leading up to the start of World War One.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Grand Coulee Dam :: Architecture Construction Dams Essays

Grand Coulee Dam Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in Washington State, built by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser It is among the most famous dams in the United States. The reservoir it created is called the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Lake. The reservoir is named after the United States President who seemed to love dams and hydroelectric power and who was involved with the project through to the final completion of the dam. The dam was built as part of the Columbia Basin Project as a way to irrigate the desert areas of the Northwest United States. The dam started during the 1930s as a public works project and finished toward the beginning of World War Two. The initial construction plan was reconfigured during construction for more height. Its height was determined by the point at which the water from the reservoir began backing up into Canada. The scope and size of the dam is hard to comprehend. It is over a mile long and taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza, in fact , all the pyramids at Giza can fit within the base of the Grand Coulee Dam. The dam is so large that a truck at the base looks like a toy, this creates some perspective into the dam's true size. When the dam was completed in the early 1940s it was the largest dam in the world. The primary goal of the dam, irrigation, was forgotten as the war time need for electricity increased. Aluminum smelting was vital to the war effort. Aluminum smelting requires substantial amounts of electricity and hydroelectric power plants are often built to provide electricity for these smelts. The electricity was also used to produce uranium for the Manhattan Project. After the war ended the original goal of irrigation resumed. Additional dams, siphons and canals were constructed that turned the coulee into a vast supply network that allowed the desert to bloom. Today it is still the largest concrete dam in North America, as well as being the largest concrete structure in the United States with 11,975,521 cubic yards of concrete. The Dam is built on a massive granite foundation and stands at 550 ft tall which is about twice as tall as the statue of liberty, The reservoir has a capacity of 421 billion cubic feet of water, the dam releases about 110,000 cubic feet

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Impact of Advertising on Youth Essay

Definition Youth is considered as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to the independence of adulthood. Due to the expansion of global higher education and delayed marriage, the period of time from youth to adulthood has been extended longer compared to before the expansion. As a result, the marketers, educators and policy makers consider youth stage as a stage that is becoming more important to them (Assaad and Roudi-Fahimi, 2007). According to United Nation (UN), they define ‘youth’ as â€Å"those persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years† (UNESCO, 2013). Malaysia follows the United Nation’s definition of youth by changing the old age group of youth from 18 to 40 years old to the new age group of 18 to 25 years old under a new National Youth Policy (The Star Online, 2011). Based on Malaysia Demographics Profile 2014, the number of population for age structure 15 to 24 years old is 2, 580, 486 for male and 2, 511, 579 for female (Index Mundi, 2014). Consumer purchasing behaviour or also known as consumer buyer behaviour is studied to be an inseparable part of marketing and Schiffman (2007) state that consumer buying behaviour is â€Å"the behaviours that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs†. Advertising is a marketers’ technique and a method of communication to encourage and persuade potential or current consumers. These potential or current consumers can be viewers, readers or listeners and they will be persuaded to continue using the marketers’ services or products or take some new action after the advertisement. Sponsors commonly paid for the advertising messages and it can be viewed by means of numerous traditional media and new media (Upadhyay & Joshi, 2014). Advertising Industry in Malaysia In Malaysia, the advertising industry is considered as a profitable business. Malaysia spends about RM2.39 billion in the first half of the year 2007 and this is a 9% increase from the same period in the year 2006 where it is RM2.2 billion. This shows there is a steady growth for this industry in Malaysia (The Report Malaysia, 2008). Furthermore, from the year 2000, there is an increase of 76% for advertising expenditure with cinema, point-of-sale and radio advertising experiencing a triple-digit growth for this same period of time (The Report Malaysia, 2008). Although this industry is lucrative for business, the content for advertisement is highly restricted by the Malaysian Communication & Multimedia Content Code (MCMCC, 2009). Aim Malaysia’s total advertising expenditure rose 22% by the first half of 2008  compared to the last year’s advertising expenditure. This accounted to the expenditure of RM2.9 billion alone for advertisement (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission, 2009). There is no certainty that the money spent on advertisements will give the necessary profits that these companies expected to gain. Due to the fact that the highest purchasing power belongs to the youths, the companies should target the existing youth market. In order to target this market, companies should be equipped with extensive knowledge on which aspect of advertisement that heavily influences the youths’ purchasing behaviour. This research aims to find the factors of advertising that influences the youths’ purchasing behaviour. As youth purchasing power is on the rise and the content of advertisement is highly restricted by the Malaysian Communication & Multimedia Content Code, it is imp erative for the marketers and advertisers to understand what aspects of advertisement that appeals to the eyes of the youth consumers. Motivation of this Study Global youth market is â€Å"an impressionable and loyal market that are making decisions and gathering information on products and companies that could last a lifetime† (Maddock, n.d.). The international marketers and advertisers consider the global youth market as a noteworthy market to consider due to its size, homogeneity and its rising purchasing power. Due to the consideration that they are a significant market, these knowledgeable consumers that are in the youth market have been sniped with promotions for most of their lives. Although there are many types of marketing weapons that can be used to influence them, advertising still remains as the main weapon due to its longer impact on viewer’s mind (Katke, 2007). Even though it is a known fact that youths’ purchasing power is on the rise compared to other range of age, there are still limited researches that have been done regarding this topic. Most researches centred on the relationship between advertising and general consumer purchasing behaviour in other countries. There are inadequate amount of research that was done concerning the relationship between advertising and youths’ purchasing behaviour in Malaysia. Therefore, this research is made to understand what makes an advertisement desirable to the Malaysian youths and its influences on their purchasing behaviour. Problem Statements The world in year 2014 is home to 1.8 billion young people from the age of 10 until 24 (UNFPA, 2014) and majority of the purchasing power belongs to them. This makes them the most persuasive in making purchasing decisions in terms of food, clothing and cars to entertainment and family vacations. They even have a say on what type of home they will live in (Jennifer Waters, 2006). This makes the youths an important target market for advertising agency and companies all around the world. The primary mission of advertisement is to reach the intended consumer and influence their awareness attitudes and buying behaviour. As they spend a huge sum of money to maintain the consumer’s interest in their products, they need to understand what catches the consumer’s interest. Furthermore, due to the heavy regulated nature of this business, it is vital to evaluate the factors of youths’ attitude towards advertising to discover what antecedents that would affect youths’ preferences are. Research Questions The research questions are as follows: 1. Which aspect of advertisement influence youths in purchasing the product or service? 2. What is the relationship between advertisement and youths purchasing behaviour? 3. Why is advertising critical in ensuring the survival of the company? Research Objectives The objectives of this research are to: 1. Identify the aspects of advertisement which influences youths in purchasing the product or service. 2. Determine the relationship between advertisement and youths’ purchasing behaviour. 3. Ascertain the importance of advertising in ensuring the survival of the company. Scope of this Research This research centres around the impact of advertising on youths’ purchasing behaviour. In this research, youth is considered as anyone from age 18 to 24 years old. Furthermore, this research will be conducted at four different private universities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (HELP University, Open University and University of Kuala Lumpur) as there is a limited amount of  money and time to travel to anywhere else. In addition, this research only consider students from different courses; one course per one private university. This research will only test whether the Independent Variables (credibility, informative, hedonic/pleasure, good for economy) influences the Dependent Variable (impact of advertising on youths’ purchasing behaviour). Significance of this research All companies in Malaysia spend a huge sum of money on marketing strategy of advertisement to introduce the product or services that they provide in market to consumers. Furthermore, with the restrictions to create creative advertisements from the Malaysian Communication & Multimedia Content Code, it made the job of the advertisers harder due to restricted contents that are allowed in an advertisement. Therefore, through this research, marketers and advertisers are able to identify the aspects of advertisements that youths in Malaysia prefer to have in an advertisement. This will help to save a lot of the marketing world’s expenditure and time as they are able to come up with a more efficient, successful and popular advertisement to suit the taste of youths in Malaysia. Theoretical Framework The dependent variable for this research is ‘impact of advertising on youth purchasing behaviour’. This research aims to find the factors of advertising that influences the youths’ purchasing behaviour. The first independent variable is ‘credibility’. According to MacKenzie and Lutz (1989), advertising credibility is consumers’ overall awareness towards the honesty, reliability, dependability and credibility of an advertisement. The second independent variable is ‘informative’. As recipients react very positively towards advertisements that provide information, information is treated as a very valuable incentive in the marketing world (Varshney, 2003). The third independent variable in this research is ‘hedonic or pleasure’. Abd Aziz, Mohd Yasin, and Syed A. Kadir (2008) found that advertisements can be pleasurable and entertaining in enticing and retaining attention given to customers’ desires and requirements. Lastly, the fourth independent variable  is ‘good for economy’. Based on the research done by Bauer and Greyser (1968), over 70 percent of their research sample believed that the living standard increased due to advertising and this in turn led to good products. Underpinning Theory The underpinning theory that will be used as a guidance to accomplish part of this research is the Hierarchy of Effects Model by Robert J. Lavidge and Gary A. Steiner. This marketing communication model that was created in the year 1961 suggests that there are six stages that an advertiser has to guide the consumer to go through. After these six stages, the consumer has to decide whether to buy or not the products or services offered. The six stages comprises of awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction and the final stage, purchase (Nguyen, 2013). This research will be using the Hierarchy of Effects Model as a guide to develop the questions in the research’s questionnaire and also as a guide to analyse and understand the research’s results. Proposed Research Methodology The main purpose of this research is â€Å"To Evaluate the Impact of Advertising on Youths’ Purchasing Behaviour† among Malaysian youths. A survey will be conducted amongst the private university students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and a thorough analysis of the results will be made. Sample Size A sample of â€Å"200† questionnaires will be distributed for the purpose of study and analysis. Sampling Unit Sampling unit consist of private university students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sampling Technique Convenience sampling technique (non-probability sampling) is going to be used for the survey. Questionnaire will be filled by the private university students. Data collection: data will be collected through primary and secondary sources. 1. Primary data: primary data are going to be collected with the assistance of structured questionnaire. 2. Secondary data: Source of secondary data is going to be collected using the help of published reports, journals, and credible websites. Sample In this research, the sample will consists of 200 students (N = 200) selected from university students from four private universities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using convenient sampling technique. The sample size will be consisted of university students of age between 18 to 24 years old from four different courses. Survey Instruments The main objective of this research is to analyse the impact of advertising on youths’ purchasing behaviour for private university students in Kuala Lumpur. The data for this research will be collected by well developed, structured five point Likert Scale questionnaires. All of the questionnaires are going to be distributed among the students from four different private universities of four different courses. The answers from the questionnaire will be collected in a period of two weeks and the results will be analysed and evaluated using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0 of IBM. The questionnaire is divided into two sections; section I and section II. Section I contains questions about the awareness about the advertisements and section II contains questions that describes the recent purchase the private students had done with the assistance of the advertisements that they have seen and attracted to. For this research, the Likert scale will contain a five point scale where number 1 is for strongly agrees while number 5 if for strongly disagrees. The five point Likert scale will be defined as below to help with the analysis of the results. (Number 1) Strongly agree (Number 2) Agree (Number 3) Neutral/No opinion (Number 4) Disagree (Number 5) Strongly disagree Conclusion Advertising industry is a very lucrative industry in Malaysia as it is able to make a high profit in a short time. The same cannot be said for any company that invests a huge amount of money in to make advertisements for their products or services. Advertising is a risk that companies have to  take in order to spread awareness to consumers about their new or existing products. When a particular advertisement is successful in catching the consumers’ attention and able to convince them to purchase the product or services, the sales for the company will increase but when it fails, the profits drops. As companies need to take such high risks every time they need to produce advertisements, it is important for them to know which market has the highest purchasing power and to have knowledge on how to attract these potential consumers. It is identified that youths have the highest purchasing power among all range of ages and this research aims to identify the factors of advertising that influences the youths’ purchasing behaviour. This research’s theoretical framework consists of four independent variables that are credibility, informative, hedonic/pleasure and good for economy and the dependent variable is impact of advertising on youths’ purchasing behaviour. In order to execute the research, Hierarchy of Effects Model by Robert J. Lavidge and Gary A. Steiner will be used as an underpinning theory. Five point Likert Scale questionnaires will be distributed and collected in two weeks to university students from four different private universities. This research will be done in hopes that companies are able to produce more stimulating and successful advertisements to youths. References Abd Aziz, N., Mohd Yasin, N., & Syed A. Kadir, B. (2008). Web advertising beliefs and attitude: Internet users’ view. The Business Review, Cambridge, 9(2), 337-337. Advertising Development In Malaysia: Catching Eyebals in Changing Media. (2009, January 1). Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://www.skmm.gov.my/skmmgovmy/files/attachments/Ad_Dev_Malaysia.pdf Assaad, R., & Roudi-Fahimi, F. (2007, April 1). Youth in the Middle East and North Africa: Demographic opportunity or challenge? Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/pdf07/youthinmena.pdf Bauer, R., & Greyser, S. (1968). Advertising in America: The consumer view. Unpublished Graduate Dissertation, Boston, MA: Harvard University. Gupta, M., Engelman, R., Levy, J., Luchsinger, G., Merrick, T., & Rosen, J. (2014, January 1). The Power of 1.8 Billion: Adolescents, Youth, and the Transformation of the Future. Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/EN-SWOP14-Report_FINAL-web.pdf Katke, K. (n.d.). The Impact of Television Advertising on Child Health & Family Spending. Retrieved from http://www.itu.int/ITUD/ict/newslog/content/binary/20-2008jpg. Lim, W. (2011, November 17). Only those aged 18 to 25 defined as youth. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com.my/story/?file=/2011/11/17/nation/9918718&sec=nation MacKenzie, S., & Lutz, R. (1989). An empirical examination of the structural antecedents of attitude toward the ad in an advertising pretesting context. Journal of Marketing, 53, 48-65. MCMCC, The Malaysian communications and multimedia content code. (1998, January 1). Retrieved from http: //www.cmcf.org.my/FILES/CONTENT_CODE_ (V6-Final).PDF. Maddock, T. (n.d.). Youth Marketing: Tips for reaching the lucrative teen, tween and college markets. Retrieved January 23, 2015, from file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/youth_marketing_whitepaper.pdf Malaysia Demographics Profile 2014. (2014, A ugust 23). Retrieved from http://www.indexmundi.com/malaysia/demographics_profile.html Nguyen, H. (2013). The Hierarchy Model of Advertising Effects: A Debate. International Integration, 92-96. Schiffman, L., Hansen, H., & Kanuk, L. (2007). Consumer Behaviour: A European Outlook. London: Pearson Education. The Report Malaysia. (2008). London, UK: Oxford Business Group. Upadhyay, P., & Joshi, J. (2014). Impact of Advertising on Buying Behavior of Youth in Kota City with Special Reference to Branded Outfits. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR), 2(2), 1-20. Varshney, U. (2003). Location management for mobile commerce applications in wireless internet environment. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 3(3), 236-255. Waters, J. (2006, October 11). Young, with tons of purchasing power. Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://www.marketwatch.com/story/young-americans-a-giant-influence-on-buying-decisions-study What do we mean by â€Å"youth†? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/youth/youth-definition/

Monday, January 6, 2020

A Brief Analysis of Mental Disorders - 1069 Words

Everything related to psychology fascinates me, since the history of founders of psychology, to some of the theories that have been developed over the time, to how science and our brain work biologically. When I first started thinking about becoming a psychologist, one of my main questions was how the mind works and how it can force us to choose to do certain actions, especially those that might affect ourselves. However, during this learning period I have realized that not all about my future career is sweetness and harmony, for instance, there are facts that at some point have kept me wondering about how after countless studies a person is still threatening himself/herself or to other people. For example, I did not know that according†¦show more content†¦Just to mention a few, one of them is the Biological factor or genes that can be part of the cause. Chemicals in the brain, serotonin, and norepinephrine are mainly responsible of behavior, and a destabilization of one ma y trigger any disorder. For example, depression can run in families. Alternatively, the environmental factor such as family history, and abuses could also active a mental disorder. For instance, continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse, or poverty can expose people to be susceptible. A mental disorder can affect anyone, even a person who appears to live in relatively ideal circumstances. Mental disorders are common, but treatments are available. Treatments: Oftentimes, the best treatment involves both medication and some form of talk therapy, but a person with any sign or symptom should firstly obtain a diagnostic evaluation by a trained professional, be educated about mental illness, signs, and symptoms, receive supportive counseling about daily life and strategies for mental disorders management to be monitored closely for conditions that may require more intensive care, do exercise, change diet, or take vacations are also recommended. Suicidal thoughts or attempts and violent or homicidal thoughts require immediate attention. Some disorders have no cure, but treatments are available to reduce the intensity and frequency of the symptoms. For instance, schizophrenia. 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